Clinical features, comorbidities, COVID-19, elderly population
Citation Information :
Khatri B, Kena, Kumari S, Shyamala K, Usha. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of COVID-19 in Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study. Indian J Respir Care 2022; 11 (4):333-336.
Background: Elderly population represents the most vulnerable group with increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection and high mortality. More research is needed in understanding the complexity of disease due to limited data as only few studies have been conducted till date in India. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological and clinical features among elderly population with COVID-19 infection at a tertiary care center, south India. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).confirmed COVID-19 elderly patients ≥60 years admitted at a tertiary care center in south India from June 2021 to August 2021 after the institutional ethical committee clearance. Their demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 32 RT-PCR-confirmed patients of age ≥60years were included. Majority (62.5%) of them were in the age group of 60-70 years, and the mean age was 70-25 ± 5-68 years. Females were predominant. Severe infection was found in 31.25% of the patients, and 56.25% had moderate infection. Hypertension (43.75%) was the predominant comorbidity followed by diabetes mellitus (34.37%). Cough (82%), dyspnea (70%), and fever (63%) were the most common presenting symptoms. The mean duration of symptoms to hospitalization was 4.7 ± 2.09 days, with majority of patients presenting bilateral lung involvement. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of COVID-19 in the age group of 60-70 years, predominantly female patients. Cough and dyspnea are common presenting symptoms. Hypertension and diabetes are major comorbidities. Most patients presented with bilateral lung involvement and longer duration of symptom onset to hospitalization. High index of suspicion with preventive strategies is required for better healthcare in elderly patients.
WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/. [Last accessed on 2022 Mar 06].
Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA 2020;323:1775-6.
Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Infect 2020;80:e14-8.
Bajaj V, Gadi N, Spihlman AP, Wu SC, Choi CH, Moulton VR. Aging, immunity, and COVID-19: How age influences the host immune response to coronavirus infections? Front Physiol 2020;11:571416.
Divo MJ, Martinez CH, Mannino DM. Ageing and the epidemiology of multimorbidity. Eur Respir J 2014;44:1055-68.
Mudgal P, Wardhan R. The increased risk of elderly population in India in COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Health Sci Res 2020;10:166-75.
A Clinical Guidance for Management of Adult COVID-19 Patients, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; May, 2021.
Lithander FE, Neumann S, Tenison E, Lloyd K, Welsh TJ, Rodrigues JC, et al. COVID-19 in older people: A rapid clinical review. Age Ageing 2020;49:501-15.
Chen T, Dai Z, Mo P, Li X, Ma Z, Song S, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China: A single-centered, retrospective study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020;75:1788-95.
Lian J, Jin X, Hao S, Cai H, Zhang S, Zheng L, et al. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical features in older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside Wuhan. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71:740-7.
Wang L, He W, Yu X, Hu D, Bao M, Liu H, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: Characteristics and prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up. J Infect 2020;80:639-45.
Pednekar SJ, Sabesan S, Pandey D, Mirg S, Pawar N, Nandwani J, et al. Study of clinical spectrum of severe COVID-19 infection in elderly patients and its outcome – A major Mumbai tertiary care hospital observations. J Assoc Physicians India 2022;70:11-2.
Leung C. Risk factors for predicting mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19: A review of clinical data in China. Mech Ageing Dev 2020;188:111255.
Jain VK, Iyengar KP, Vaishya R. Differences between First wave and Second wave of COVID-19 in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021;15:1047-8.
Singhal S, Kumar P, Singh S, Saha S, Dey AB. Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr 2021;21:321.
Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on patients with COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med 2020;2:1069-76.
Apicella M, Campopiano MC, Mantuano M, Mazoni L, Coppelli A, Del Prato S. COVID-19 in people with diabetes: Understanding the reasons for worse outcomes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2020;8:782-92.