Indian Journal of Respiratory Care

IJRC Email      Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines against Mortality among COVID-19 Cases of Indore, Central India

Sanjay Avashia, Salil Bhargava, Deepak Bansal, Ketan Jha

Keywords : Coronavirus disease 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 mortality, Vaccine efficacy

Citation Information : Avashia S, Bhargava S, Bansal D, Jha K. Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines against Mortality among COVID-19 Cases of Indore, Central India. Indian J Respir Care 2023; 12 (1):59-61.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11010-1017

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Published Online: 14-03-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) virus is being used since January 2021 in India. Current data shows that the vaccines are effective against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related morbidity and mortality. Vaccine efficacy in fully vaccinated may decrease over time. Materials and methods: Retrospective study was done to assess vaccine efficacy against COVID-19 pneumonia related deaths in a tertiary COVID-19 care hospital in Central India. The vaccine efficacy was assessed in the patients with respect to age, gender, and comorbidity and since they received 2nd dose of the vaccine, the study also investigated the waning effectiveness over time leading to mortality. Results: Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 mortality did not peak in the early weeks post receiving the second dose (12.5% mortality in 1st month) but then it increased by the 5th month (7.4% mortality). After the 5th month, vaccine effectiveness decreased (11.9% mortality). Waning of vaccine effectiveness causing mortality was greater in the elderly ≥60 years (18.2%) than in patients <60 years (5.4%). Fully vaccinated males had higher mortality than females. A greater reduction in vaccine efficacy was observed in persons with comorbidities (14.1% mortality) than in noncomorbid (3.4% mortality). On comparing all patients with comorbidity, there was lower mortality in patients who received a full dose of vaccination (14.1%) than those who didn't (22.7%). Fully vaccinated elderly ≥60 years (18.2%) had lesser mortality than those who were not vaccinated (36.4%). Conclusion: Waning of vaccine effectiveness and related death is seen against COVID-19 after the 5th-month post second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Greater mortality is noted in the elderly, males, and patients with comorbidities. Fully vaccinated elderly and patients with comorbidities had a lower mortality rate than those who were not vaccinated.

  1. Andrews N, Tessier E, Stowe J, et al. Duration of protection against mild and severe disease by Covid-19 vaccines. N Engl J Med 2022;386(4):340–350. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2115481
  2. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant. N Engl J Med 2021;385(7):585–594. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2108891
  3. Vasileiou E, Simpson CR, Shi T, et al. Interim findings from first-dose mass COVID-19 vaccination roll-out and COVID-19 hospital admissions in Scotland: a national prospective cohort study. Lancet 2021;397(10285):1646–1657. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00677-2
  4. Pritchard E, Matthews PC, Stoesser N. et al. Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom. Nat Med 2021;27(8):1370–1378. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-021-01410-w
  5. Hyams C, Marlow R, Maseko Z, et al. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID-19 vaccination at preventing hospitalisations in people aged at least 80 years: a test-negative, case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21(11):1539–1548. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00330-3
  6. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, et al. Effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines on covid-19 related symptoms, hospital admissions, and mortality in older adults in England: test negative case-control study. BMJ 2021;373:n1088. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n1088
  7. Pouwels KB, Pritchard E, Matthews PC, et al. Effect of delta variant on viral burden and vaccine effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK. Nat Med 2021;27(12):2127–2135. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-021-01548-7
  8. Chemaitelly H, Tang P, Hasan MR, et al. Waning of BNT162b2 vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Qatar. N Engl J Med 2021;385(24):e83. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2114114
  9. Shrotri M, Navaratnam AMD, Nguyen V, et al. Spike-antibody waning after second dose of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. Lancet 2021;398(10298):385–387. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01642-1
  10. Feng S, Phillips DJ, White T, et al. Correlates of protection against symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Med 2021;27(11):2032–2040. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-021-01540-1
  11. Desai D, Khan AR, Soneja M, et al. Effectiveness of an inactivated virus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152, in India: a test-negative, case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 2022;22(3):349–356. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00674-5
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.