Indian Journal of Respiratory Care

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VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Comparison of ICU Patients’ Characteristics across Two Waves of COVID-19: A Monocentric Cohort Study

Youssef Motiaa, Tannouche B Mohammed, Zyani Adil, Ounci Es-saad, Mohammed Aabdi, Hanane Khalki, Marieme Benkacem, Maryam Assem, Siham Alaoui Rachidi, Hicham Sbai, Smael Labib

Keywords : Comorbidities, Coronavirus disease 2019, First wave, Intensive care unit, Morbidity, Mortality, Second wave, Severity

Citation Information : Motiaa Y, Mohammed TB, Adil Z, Es-saad O, Aabdi M, Khalki H, Benkacem M, Assem M, Rachidi SA, Sbai H, Labib S. Comparison of ICU Patients’ Characteristics across Two Waves of COVID-19: A Monocentric Cohort Study. Indian J Respir Care 2023; 12 (2):139-145.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11010-1047

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Published Online: 30-06-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Morocco, like the rest of the globe, has undergone multiple waves of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) pneumonia. This study included the patients managed during two different waves, which included 494 patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Tangier, Morocco. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in the ICU during two periods. The first period extended from 26th March to 17th September 2020, and the second period from 1st July to 30th September 2021. Results: Overall, data from 494 patients have been analyzed, 221 of them included during the first wave and 273 during the second wave. Patients admitted during the second wave had more diabetes mellitus (26.3 vs 25%, p = 0.007) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1.1 vs 0.5%, p < 0.001). They were clinically more severe [acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II)—12 (9; 15) vs 10 (5; 14)/p < 0.001), and the respiratory status as shown by the following vital signs—oxygen saturation: 80% (68; 88%) vs 93% (85; 96%)/p < 0.001, respiratory rate—35/minute (30; 40) vs 30/minute (25; 35)/p < 0.001, heart rate—96 bpm (88; 103) vs 90 bpm (82; 100)/p = 0.005, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)—70 mm Hg (60; 80) vs 70 mm Hg (70; 80)/p = 0.026]. They had evidence of more lung damage [70% (50; 80) vs 60% (45; 70), p < 0.001] and pulmonary embolism at admission [3.7 vs 3.2% (p < 0.001)]. Complications were also more frequent during the second wave—ICU stay [5 (3.9) vs 3 (2.9), p = 0.001], bacterial superinfection pneumonia [27.4 vs 12.7%, p < 0.001], acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [52.4 vs 18.6%, p < 0.001], and septic shock [17.9 vs 5.9%, p < 0.001]. ICU mortality was also higher—72.5 vs 49.5%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU during the second wave had significantly higher morbidity and mortality compared to patients admitted during the first wave.

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