Introduction: Lung cancer stands second ranked among all cancers with an incidence of 11.4% worldwide. In India, it remains the fourth-most common cancer with an incidence of 5.5% and mortality of 7.8%. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database is used by the American Cancer Society to access survival rates for various cancer types. Five-year survival of nonsmall-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer by SEER stages is ranging from 8% to 64% and 3% to 29%, respectively, majorly influence by the spread of cancer.
Objectives: To study the demography of lung cancer and establish the utility of bronchoscopy in lung cancer diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out on patients having radiologically proven lung mass in the period of November 2017 to October 2020.
Results: A total of 416 patients, had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 58.1 (10.1) years, including 83.7% males. Most were smokers (79.8%) with a mean (SD) smoking index of 506.45 (252.16). The most common types of lung cancer in descending order were adenocarcinoma (ADC) (43.8%), squamous cell carcinoma (34.9), small-cell lung cancer (12%), and others (9.3%). Upper lobe involvement (46.8%) was more common. At the time of diagnosis, 72.6% of total patients were presented with a stage III or higher index of severity. The yield of endobronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy, transbronchial needle aspiration, and brushing were 87.8%, 45.5%, 64.1%, 53.2%, and 45.1%, respectively, with overall diagnostic yields of 69.9%.
Conclusion: Lung cancer is mainly discovered in the elderly, males, and smokers with advanced pathological stages. The most common morphology of lung cancer is ADC. Bronchoscopy is considered an initial tool for the assessment of lung mass and shows a higher diagnostic yield in centrally located tumors.
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